(a) Nose—Left iris 52′, right iris 8′ approx.

(b) Throat and larynx—Left iris 45′-47′, right iris l3′-15′.

(c) Trachea—Right iris 12′-14′ only.

(d) Bronchi—Left iris 15′-17′, right iris 43′-45′.

(e) Lungs—Left iris 10′-15′, right iris 45′-50′ respectively, from the muscle zone outwards.

(f) Pleurae—Left iris and right iris, 15′-19′, 41′-45′- (Strictly speaking, the pleurae do not belong to the respiratory organs, but as is well known, are often disturbed together with the lungs, thus requiring them to be mentioned here.)

1. Inflammation of the upper respiratory passages ((a) to (c)): as may occur especially in the form of mucous membrane catarrh following chill—shows as white flakes or clouds in the specified areas. White wisps, running outwards to the iris margin, indicate an acute catarrhal discharge.

2. Chronic catarrh of the upper respiratory organs: is shown by dark grey wisp-signs.

3. Lacunae = weakness-signs: in the area for the upper respiratory passages, indicate a weakness of these organs and permanent catarrhal tendencies. More important than the signs in the areas for the upper respiratory passages are those which show in the area for bronchi, lungs and pleurae.

The bronchi very often became involved together with disturbances of the upper respiratory organ, in which case, the signs described above are also found in the bronchial areas.


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